In Search of a Cure: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Genetic Clinical Trials

One of the worlds slowly progressing terminal diseases is ALS. The treatment options for this condition are limited and there is no known cure. One of the major symptoms is the loss of motor control and this comes from the death of motor neurons that are located in the spine. Ninety percent of the diagnoses are sporadic while ten percent are linked to the following genes:

  • Superoxide dismutase 1 – SOD1
  • C9orf72

In the early stages the disease presents as muscular weakness and then progresses to poor respiratory control because the diaphragm with stop functioning.


Genetically Caused ALS

Finding the various genetic causes of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is something that is just beginning. GWAS (genome wide association studies) have identified some new genes each with different functions. Because there isn’t a unifying theory, treatment development has been confounded. Free radicals complexed with zinc or copper tend to accumulate but SOD1 prevents this. When this protein is not associated with the aforementioned metals, it become unstable and clumps up inside the neuron. These clumps of protein are called aggregations and they have become the hallmark of ALS. They have been found to remain consistent regardless of the different mutations in the genes.

Protein that is aggregated, non-functional or misfolded the cell usually removes it through degradative pathways. If these types of proteins accumulate within the cell, it can die. C9orf72, FUS, SOD1 and TDP-43 also aggregate. Remarkably, both TDP-43 and FUS, which are called TARDBP, are known as nucleic acid binding proteins and their work is to regulate the transcription of protein.

In March 19, 2016 there was research newly published in Science 1 that untangled and presented another protein associated with nucleic acids, C9orf72. The finding was of antisense increase. This means that normal transcripts are reversed in a mouse model when the protein C9orf74 has gene segments that are repeated. The result is that the RNA pieces combine and then imitate human ALS.

It has been found that discovering a system that prevents or clears protein combinations and saves neurons cannot be belittled. The treatment methods used on the various people have been successful in delaying the progression of symptoms only in some patients but not in all of them. Today, Rilutek also known as Riluzole is the only medication approved for ALS. This medication dampens the excitation of neurons and prevents some cell death. There is a great need for new treatments and this is a great avenue for active research.


Treatment for ALS Cure

There are several stem cell therapy trials planned. The brain and the spine have a variety of different cell types in them apart from neurons. It is not well understood how these supporting cells and the neurons relate. However, there are therapies in different stages of clinical development that are using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC), human embryonic stem cells (heSC), glial-restricted progenitor cells (GRP) and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Before any human trials can begin, each one of these cell types will need to be carefully validated, manufactured, banked and characterized. The analysis will include differentiation potentials, genetic sequencing, flow cytometry and freeze/thaw survivability. All this must be up to the set FDA GMP standards.

The Right Private Mortgage Broker Will Make A Difference

Buying a house is an exciting team; whether you’re first home, an opportunity to upscale and prepare for a family, or even if you are looking to downsize and find a place to enjoy your senior years.  The right house can become a home and provide you with a safe environment to fill with fun and happiness for years to come.  However, it can often seem the case that the right property is just outside of reach.

Thankfully there is a solution that many people either do not know about or simply do not consider.  Private mortgage brokers such as can offer a much more personal service than the mainstream finance companies.


What are Private Mortgage Brokers?

The answer is simple; they are individuals and firms which are privately owned and can connect you to the right mortgage for your needs.  They operate in a similar capacity to the bank or mortgage company you are already dealing with.  However, instead of offering you a mortgage based on their range of products, private mortgage brokers study the entire market to find you the best deals.  They are constantly evaluating the deals being offered by mortgage firms to work out the best possible scenario for all their clients.

Personal Service

The private mortgage brokers will also offer a much more personal service.  They are interested in getting you the best possible mortgage which you can afford to repay.  In fact, they will generally be able to secure you a higher level of funding that the conventional approach.  In addition to this, a private mortgage broker, such as OE Mortgage will continue to offer a personal service after you have accepted the deal they negotiated on your behalf.

The aim of this type of service is to simplify the baffling array of options available to anyone looking for a mortgage.  If you have any experience shopping for the best finance package for your next home you will be well aware of the frustration in believing you have found a good deal online, only to have a mortgage agent advise you that the rate was higher than anticipated.  It often seems like this scenario is created simply to improve the profit available to the agent.


Private mortgage brokers work by taking the hassle out of your finance arrangements, instead of you stressing and visiting many different mortgage firms, you simply enter your details into the web page and they will quickly inform you of the best rate you can expect to get and the amount you will be able to borrow.  Assuming the information you have provided to them is correct and you ask them to instigate the mortgage for them, they will then follow through on the process and secure the funds for you.  The stress is removed from the process and you can rest assured that you have the best deal possible; all you will need to do is sign the relevant papers and look forward to owning your new home!


What to Keep In Mind When Writing Effective SEO Copy

In the modern context, SEO has evolved from being a simple technique to increase search engine visibility by stuffing keywords in often meaningless content to a more dynamic and even personal experience that adds value to the user. While the basic tenets of search engine optimization remain almost the same, the rules for effective SEO execution keep on changing fast and both content and search engine rankings can easily suffer due to inattention. Some tips on optimizing content:

Focus On Writing Quality Meta Content

You need to appreciate that Meta titles and Meta descriptions can get your site a huge amount of traffic from search engines like Google. Make sure that you write to the full character length limit of 70 characters for the title tag and 100 characters per line for the Meta description. The recent relaxation by Google means that now you have more space to include more keywords, descriptions or even contact details. When you are writing out your Meta you should not just describe your content but make a conscious attempt to include stuff that would attract the attention of visitors and compel them to read the content. This is the perfect opportunity for doing some hard sell about your content.


Compose Relevant Content for Embedded Links

Instead of using generic text to embed your links, you should use phrases that are contextually relevant to assist visitors to locate what they are really looking for. The secret is to make the anchor text relevant as well as interesting and descriptive so that you are able to obtain the maximum boost from SEO. Link back from blogs to your content or establish links to other blogs, pages or even content on your own site. If you seem to be out of depth this is the perfect time to consult a competent SEO company in Mumbai to take charge of keeping your site optimized for the ever-changing search engine algorithms.

Write Content for Readers

People should want to read the stuff you are putting up because they find it interesting and useful. The logic is quite simple – if people do not find your content worth reading it is very unlikely that they would still want to check out your product and services. It is quite natural that they would abandon your site perhaps never to return again.

When writing content, another element to keep in mind is the impact of RankBrain, the artificial intelligence system that Google has developed to handle the millions of searches its users throw at it every day. Marketers should write content that is optimized for RankBrain – this is nothing but content that has a natural flow, assists visitors and features videos and images that are interactive and consequently maximizes the click-earning potential. The combination of all these elements contributes to effective SEO that will fetch a better ranking in the search engine results page.

Include Content That Readers Find Useful

Usefulness of web content is not usually regarded as anything to do with effective SEO but this really needs to be taken as the basis of all content development. You are simply not going to get ranked very high in the SERPs unless your readers find your content to be relevant and useful in satisfying their information requirements. Unless a site has the ability to add value to the visitors there is really no way that SEO can help to prop its ranking up consistently and for long. When writing or commissioning content you need to be constantly asking yourself whether the content answers questions or solves problems of the readers in a competent manner. The degree to which reader issues are taken care of is vital because if readers find better value elsewhere they will shift their attention.


As a content manager, you need to appreciate that the SEO environment is extremely dynamic and you need to be extremely adaptable so that your site continues to perform well. Updating your SEO approach on a regular basis makes it easier for you to provide content that both readers and search engines like equally.